Many Japanese Americans argued with the school authority that the segregation of schools went against the 1894 treaty, which did not explicitly address education, but stated that the Japanese would gain equal rights in the United States. According to U.S. Supreme Court review decisions (Plessy v. Ferguson, 1896), a state did not violate the equality protection clause of the U.S. Constitution by imposing racial segregation as long as the separate institutions were substantially identical. Tokyo newspapers condemned segregation as an insult to Japanese pride and honor. The Japanese government wanted to protect its reputation as a world power. Government officials realized that there was a crisis and that intervention was needed to maintain diplomatic peace. [9] The first major Chinese immigration to North America began with the California Gold Rush of 1848-1855 and continued with later large work projects such as the construction of the First Transcontinental Railroad. In the early stages of the gold rush, when surface gold abounded, the Chinese were tolerated by the whites, but not well received. [3] However, as gold became harder to find and competition increased, hostility toward Chinese and other foreigners increased. After being forcibly driven out of the mining industry by a mix of state lawmakers and other miners (Foreign Miner`s Tax), Chinese immigrants began settling in enclaves in cities, mainly San Francisco, and began working at low wages like restaurateur and laundry.

[4] When the economy shrunk after the Civil War of the 1870s, anti-Chinese hostility was politicized by labor leader Denis Kearney and his workers` party,[5] as well as California Governor John Bigler, both of whom blamed Chinese “coolies” for low wages. Public opinion and the law in California began to demonize Chinese workers and immigrants in any role, with a series of increasingly restrictive laws on Chinese work, behavior, and even living conditions in the second half of the 1800s. While many of these legislative efforts were quickly overturned by the state Supreme Court,[6] many other anti-China laws continued to be passed, both in California and nationally. A year later, concessions were agreed in a score of six points. The agreement was followed by the reception of students of Japanese origin in public schools. The adoption of the 1907 agreement stimulated the arrival of “brides of images”, marriages of convenience concluded remotely by photographs. [11] By creating remote marital bonds, women who wanted to emigrate to the United States could obtain passports and Japanese workers in America could earn a partner of their own nationality. [11] Because of this provision, which helped close the gender gap within the Community from a ratio of 7 men to every woman in 1910 to less than 2 to 1 by 1920, the Japanese-American population continued to grow despite the restrictions imposed by the Immigration Agreement. . .

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